U.S. President (R)
Lincoln: "As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy."
[When a critic called him a two-faced liar:]
Lincoln: "If I had another face, do you think I would wear this one?"
Karl Marx: "[Lincoln] ... gives his most important
actions the most commonplace form. ... Even when he is gripped by an idea, he talks [in dry phrases]."
Karl Marx: "[He behaves] as though apologizing for being compelled
by circumstances 'to act the lion.'"
Ulysses S. Grant: "Lincoln ... was willing to trust his
generals in making and executing their plans."
[Lincoln's law partner:] "He cared little for simple facts. ...
It was the underlying principle ... that Lincoln [cared about]."
Myers identifies Lincoln as an introvert.
Keirsey & son identify Lincoln as ENTP.
Einstein: "To punish me for my contempt for authority, Fate made me an authority myself."
Einstein: "Hume has permanently influenced the development of the best
of philosophers who came after him. One senses him in the reading of Russell's
philosophical analyses, whose acumen and simplicity of expression have often reminded me of Hume."
Robert Oppenheimer: "There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn."
Stephen Hawking: "When a book was published entitled '100 Authors Against Einstein,' he
retorted, 'If I were wrong, then one would have been enough!'"
C.G. Jung: "Einstein is so very concentrated on his own ideas."
C.G. Jung: "Quantum theory ... was a thorn in [Einstein's] eye.
[To him] everything should be rational, but it isn't."
Darwin: "A scientific man ought to have no wishes, no affections - a mere heart of stone."
Darwin: "With me, the horrid doubt always arises."
Darwin: "Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: It is those
who know little ... who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science."
Darwin: "I love fools' experiments. I am always making them."
Darwin: "A republic cannot succeed till it contains a certain body of men imbued with ... principles."
Darwin: "I had a high notion of Aristotle's merits, but [until I read
him] I had not the most remote notion what a wonderful man he was."
Jung identifies Darwin as E-TJ.
Myers identifies Darwin as an extrovert.
Keirsey & son identify Darwin as INTP.
Van der Hoop identifies Darwin as E-TJ.
Biologist, author of 'The Selfish Gene'
and 'The God Delusion'
Dawkins: "What worries me about religion is that it teaches people to be satisfied with not understanding."
Dawkins: "My passion is for scientific truth. I don't much care about good and evil. ... I care about what's true."
Dawkins: "I don't want to sound callous ... even if I have nothing to offer ... that
doesn't mean that what anybody else has to offer [is] true."
[On the school he is considering starting:]
Dawkins: "I am almost pathologically afraid of indoctrinating
children. ... It would be a 'Think for Yourself Academy.'"
Philosopher and author of 'The Human Condition',
dated Martin Heidegger
Arendt: "Thinking ... interrupts all doing, all ordinary activities no matter what they
happen to be. ... The moment we start thinking ... we stop everything else."
Arendt: "If the ability to tell right from wrong should have anything to do with the ability to think,
then we must be able to 'demand' its exercise in every sane person no matter how erudite or ignorant."
Arendt: "Nietzsche ... has caused [philosophers] so much confusion."
Arendt: "The business of thinking ... undoes every morning what it had finished the night before."
Nobel prize in both physics and chemistry
Curie: "Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood."
Curie: "I am among those who think that science has great beauty."
Curie: "Be less curious about people and more curious about ideas."
Einstein: "Marie Curie is, of all [famous people],
the only one whom fame has not corrupted."
Keirsey & son identify Curie as INTP.
Kant: "There is nothing higher than reason."
Kant: "A [monarch] may evaluate his own governance. He can do this when ... he lays upon
himself the reproach 'the Ruler is not above the Rules.'"
Kant: "I am an investigator by inclination. I feel a great
thirst for knowledge."
Kelley L. Ross: "[Kant] wishes to construe reason as no more than the formal rules that become evident in logic."
Hannah Arendt: "Kant ... was much bothered by the common opinion that philosophy
is only for the few ... because of this opinion's moral implications."
Locke: "To love truth for truth's sake is ... the seed-plot of all other virtues."
Locke: "Logic is the anatomy of thought."
Locke: "Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking
that makes what we read ours."
Locke: "Religion, which ... ought most particularly elevate us, as rational creatures ...
is that where men often appear most irrational, and more senseless than beasts."
U.S. President and author of the Constitution
Madison: "Truth [comes only] from those ... who cultivate their reason."
Madison: "Religion and government will both exist in greater purity, the less they are mixed together."
Madison: "Toleration is a gift, free men excise their rights."
Madison: "In ... assemblies ... passion [wrests] the sceptre from reason. Had every
Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob."
Garry Wills: "As a framer and defender of the Constitution [Madison] had no peer."
Richard Brookhiser: "Madison lived in his head and public speaking did not come naturally to him."
Richard Brookhiser: "Madison loathed Hamilton and loved
Jefferson above all."
Keirsey & son identify Madison as INTP.
Smith: "Science is the great antidote to the poison of enthusiasm and superstition."
Smith: "[I endeavor to find] the connecting principles of nature ... which bind together
all ... disjointed objects. [Principles] introduce order into this chaos of jarring and discordant appearances."
Smith: "[To discover principles is] to allay the tumult of the imagination, and to restore
it ... to ... tranquility and composure."
Smith: "I am a slow, a very slow workman. [I] do and undo everything I write at least
half a dozen of times before I can be tolerably pleased with it."
The Times [in 1790:] "Being in his youth a hard student ... his
appearance was ungracious and his address awkward. His frequent absence of mind gave him an air of vacancy."
Milton Friedman: "There is not a line in 'The Wealth of Nations'
that is not still applicable to this day."
Keirsey & son identify Smith as NT.
Friedrich A. Hayek
Economist and philosopher, author of 'The Road to Serfdom',
cousin of Ludwig Wittgenstein
Hayek: "It may indeed prove to be far the most difficult and not the least important
task for human reason rationally to comprehend its own limitations."
Milton Friedman: "My interest in political philosophy
was rather casual until I met Hayek."
Ronald Reagan: "Hayek is amongst the top 2-3 of the all
the people who ever influenced me."
[Banging a copy of Hayek's 'The Constitution of Liberty'
on the table at a policy meeting in the Conservative Party:]
Margaret Thatcher: "This is what we believe!"
Karl Popper: "I have learned more from Hayek than from any
other living thinker, except perhaps Alfred Tarski - but not even excepting Russell."
Keirsey & son identify Hayek as INT.
Economist, father of David Friedman
Friedman: "To really understand something you've got to reduce it to its principles."
Friedman: "In every discipline, progress comes from people who make hypotheses, most of which
turn out to be wrong, but all of which ultimately point to the right answer."
[Asked if he was a libertarian:]
Friedman: "I'm much more interested in
having people thinking about the ideas, rather than the person."
Friedman: "The proper role of government is exactly what John Stuart
Mill said. ... The proper role of government is to prevent other people from harming an individual [and not much else]."
David Friedman: "[With my father] it was simply
taken for granted that what mattered was how good your arguments were, not who was making them."
Philosopher and theologian
Aquinas: "Reason in man is rather like God in the world."
Anthony Kenny: "[To Aquinas] the senses are what we have in common
with dumb animals. ... Our better part [is] the mind ... and [its] intellectual contemplation."
Anthony Kenny: "[To Aquinas] the intellect [stands] at the summit of ... the human soul."
Ayn Rand: "Aquinas brought an
Aristotelian view of reason back into European culture, and lighted the
way toward the Renaissance."
C.G. Jung: "St. Thomas is really a great man quite apart from his saintliness."
Descartes: "Cogito ergo sum."
("I think, therefore I am.")
Descartes: "Each problem that I solved became a rule, which served afterwards to solve other problems."
Allen W. Wood: "Descartes recommended that we distrust the senses and rely on the ... use of our intellect."
Kelley L. Ross: "Descartes is justly regarded as the Father
of Modern Philosophy. This is not because of the positive results of his investigations, which were few,
but because of the questions ... and problems that he [raised], problems that have still not been answered."
Journal of First Principles: "Descartes ... taught that the cause of error lies in the will,
not the intellect."
Greek philosopher, student of Xenophanes, mentor of Zeno
Parmenides: "Let reason alone decide."
Parmenides: "You must learn all things, both the unshaken heart of truth, and the opinions
of mortals in which there is no warranty."
Daniel W. Graham: "It may be a historical fact that Parmenides is a kind of super-logician."
Scott Austin: "[The thinking of] later philosophers appears softer by comparison."
Edward Hussey: "Like Descartes, Parmenides is trying to find
an unassailable starting-point on which something further can be built."
Karl Popper: "I have spoken to Einstein
and he admitted to me that his theory was in fact no different from the one of Parmenides."
Socrates: "Parmenides is the one being whom I respect above all others."
Thucydides: "Few things are brought to a successful issue by impetuous desire, but most by calm and prudent forethought."
Thucydides: "The bravest are surely those who have the clearest [understanding of] what
is before them ... and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it."
Jared Diamond: "[His] insights into politics and war are universal and still relevant;
his moral and psychological reflections on war and history are profound."
Jared Diamond: "His book is considered to have laid the foundations of the discipline of history."
Founder of Wikipedia
Wales: "My style is somehow reflected in the Wikipedia style. A friend says it's a really
good quality and also very infuriating that I'm so neutral all the time."
[When told he has been called a new and more open type of leader, the opposite of the command
and control of Jack Welch:]
Wales: "I think there is something to that, in fact to the point where I am not always comfortable being called a
Wales' results on a Jungian type test score him as ESTP.
Founder of Microsoft along with Bill Gates
Allen: "My style [is] to absorb all the data I [can] to make the best-informed decision possible ... sometimes
to the point of over-analysis."
Allen: "I'm a stubbornly logical person."
Allen: "Sometimes I [am] absentminded."
Allen: "Bill Gates and I [soon] found a groove together. I was the idea man. ... Bill listened and challenged me, and then homed in on my best ideas to help make
them a reality. Our collaboration had a natural tension, but mostly it worked productively and well."
Allen: "Bill would test my ideas. I would come to him with another 10 ideas that never went anywhere - he
was the sanity check. [But] when it came to selling and marketing ... he was much more excited on the business side, so we became very complementary."
Founder of Google along with Sergey Brin
Page: "Building things ... is a really interesting intellectual exercise."
Page: "I find that [pursuing truth] is more important than trying to control people."
Page: "Part of our brand is that we're pretty understated."
Page: "Google is actually a great argument for [doing] pure research [because] we didn't start
out to do a search engine at all."
Page: "[Steve Jobs] kept telling me, 'You're doing too much at once.'"
Jan Yarow: "Page is more interested ... in lots of weird side projects [whereas]
Mark Zuckerberg is focused 100% on Facebook's core business, and has never
seemed to waver from that."
Founder of Google along with Larry Page
Brin: "I never rooted for [my schools'] sports teams. I was never one of the crowd
supporting something or not. I like to maintain my independence."
Brin: "Managing people, and being emotionally sensitive, and all the skills you learn in
terms of communication and keeping people motivated - [for me] that has been a challenge."
[Interviewer: "Do you tell yourself 'I changed the world'?"]
Brin: "That would be a little bit self-centered."
Larry Page: "[When Sergey and I first met] I thought he was pretty
obnoxious. He had really strong opinions about things, and I guess I did, too."
John Battelle: "The Google founders are two swords sharpening one another."
Author of 'The Trial'
Kafka: "Something like my [mixture of characteristics] I have never found anywhere else:
Cold indifference, a childish helplessness approaching the ridiculous, and a brutish complacence."
Kafka: "[I have] the indifference of a self-sufficient but coldly imaginative child."
Kafka: "How easy it is to admire Napoleon!"
Peter Drucker: "What few people know is that outside his work
as a fiction writer, Kafka is also the inventor of modern safety headgear, as used on construction sites."
Chairman of the Federal Reserve, dated Barbara Walters
Greenspan: "I had always viewed myself as an observer of events, never as a partaker of them."
Greenspan: "I've never been entirely comfortable being cast as the person who calls the shots."
Greenspan: "I'm hardly Adam Smith, but I've got the same inquisitiveness
about understanding the broad forces that define our age."
Minister of Armaments in Nazi Germany
Speer: "There are things for which one is guilty even if one might offer excuses - simply
because the crime is so overwhelming that by comparison any human excuse pales to insignificance."
Speer: "Technology [can be used] to multiply [genocide]. ... The more technological the
world becomes, the more essential ... individual freedom and the self-awareness of the individual human being
[will be] as a counterpoise to technology."
Speer: "For all writers of history, Eva Braun is going to be a disappointment."
At the Nuremberg Trials, Speer's IQ was tested to be 128.
Cronenberg: "I try to make things clear; I never try to make things deliberately ambivalent or cloudy."
Cronenberg: "I'm [not] looking in fear at science ... and worrying about where it's leading us. That's
not the way I feel about it at all. I feel an incredible empathy for the process of science."
Andrew O'Hehir: "[Cronenberg] is a genuine intellectual. ... It'd be easy to imagine him as a writer or philosopher or historian."
Peter Garrett: "[He] is a cheerful, deep-thinking, mild-mannered college professor type."
Sam Maronie: "He is modest [and] in many ways ... his own worst critic."
Eisenberg: "I can't exist in normal group situations ... where you have to ... jockey
for position. I ... just withdraw."
Eisenberg: "[I became an actor through a] series of really weird events. ... I don't think
I ever would've tried to be an actor."
Eisenberg: "[When] acting, then there's a prescribed way to behave; whereas in life
there's no prescribed way. So acting [is] a comfortable way to get through the day."
Eisenberg: "When I was acting in a play I liked knowing my place - that I was this
role, and other people were that role, and we could interact with each other in a way I felt was very
clear to me."
Stephen Whitty: "His characters usually have a few things in common. They're extremely bright [and]
yet they often seem more than a little confused about what people around them expect, emotionally."
Actress and singer
Gainsbourg: "I didn't [try] to become [a performer]; it just happened when I was really young
and then continued."
Gainsbourg: "I've never thought of myself as being an actress or being a singer. I'm
uncomfortable with both."
Gainsbourg: "Everything that [deals with] being isolated I've felt very close
to. ... Isolation [is] something ... that I understand well."
Gainsbourg: "It's normal to judge yourself and to be your own worst critic. It keeps you
in a kind of reality."
Gainsbourg: "Self-questioning is my method."
Weaver: "[In my youth] I was very shy, very self-conscious. I didn't even decide
to be an actress until [people] kept hiring me. I kind of backed into it."
[On her choice of characters:]
Weaver: "I've always been drawn to women who aren't very comfortable in the world. Who are isolated."
Weaver: "Have I ever doubted myself? Have I ever not?"
Weaver: "I feel self-doubt whether I'm doing something hard or easy."
Weaver: "Most [directors] didn't know what to do with me, so I ended up working with Ridley Scott
and James Cameron. People who didn't much care for convention."
Comedic writer and actress
Fey: "Comedy is only funny when it is telling the truth."
Fey: "I live every writer's fantasy of being mostly a writer, but getting to be on TV just
a little bit to get acknowledgment for being a writer."
Amy Poehler: "[She doesn't] belly-flop into the pool at
the pool party. She watches everybody else's flops and then writes a play about it."
Alec Baldwin: "She's so bright you're always wondering if you're boring her."
Adult film actress and member of Mensa
Carrera: "The more I learned about the histories of organized religion, the more convinced I became
that people are extremely gullible, and that I need to get off my ass and start a religion of my own!"
Carrera: "[I am one of the guys when it comes to] gaming or computer skills, or even just all-around geekiness."
Carrera: "[My hobbies include] studying Wall Street and quantum physics."
Carrera: "I don't have a TV, and I don't party or socialize."
Game show host and writer
Stein: "Many [people] fail because they don't get started - they don't go. They don't overcome
inertia. They don't begin."
Stein [to the host on FOX News:] "You are doing the classic
post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy."
George Miller: "His past is actually tightly woven with higher education, academia, and
law. In fact, his personal history reads much more like a tenured professor's than a former game-show host."
Scholl: "This is always a question for each singer to answer for himself. What do I stand for? What
are my ideas? What am I doing?"
Scholl: "Some people ask me: 'Don't you feel limited by [only] singing Renaissance and Baroque music?'
Well, [I reply] that is most of [the music] till this very day!"
Scholl: "[I am German in the sense that] Germans are known to be very self-critical and
not too enthusiastic about themselves. ... We are not over-confident or praising ourselves too much."
Cartoonist famous for 'xkcd'
Munroe: "Noticing when the stoplights are in sync, or calculating the length of your strides
between floor tiles - normal people notice that kind of stuff, but a certain kind of person will do some calculations."
Munroe: "I go to goth clubs dressed as a frat guy so I can stand around and look terribly
uncomfortable. At frat parties I do the same thing, but the other way around."
Sociologist and philosopher, author of 'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism'
Weber: "The modern world is but a convergence of factors so unlikely to occur as to be practically an accident."
Weber: "A fully developed bureaucratic mechanism stands in the same relationship to other forms as does the machine to the
non-mechanical production of goods. Precision, speed, clarity."
Weber: "Nothing is gained by assuming that, if only the [prospect] of a non-[capitalist] economy was investigated seriously enough, a
suitable ... method [for running such an economy] would be discovered ... [This] problem is fundamental to any kind of [Marxism]."
Thales of Miletus
Bertrand Russell: "Western philosophy begins with Thales."
Aristotle: "Thales was the first of the Greek philosophers."
Nietzsche: "As a mathematician and an astronomer, Thales had a chilly
relationship with allegory and myth."
Nietzsche: "Thales postulates a principle from which he makes deductions.
He is foremost a systematizer."
Historian and author of 'The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'
Gibbon: "Reading could not teach me to think. ... [Only] rational application [could do that]."
Churchill: "I set out [to read Gibbon and]
was immediately dominated both by the story and the style. ... I [read] it from end to end and enjoyed it all."
Roderick Graham: "For Gibbon's objectivity in writing about Christianity,
he was heavily censored then, and still is today."
David Hume [in a letter to Gibbon:] "The dignity of your
style, the depth of your matter [and] the extensiveness of your learning [makes your work an] object of esteem."
Unusually for INTPs, Gibbon also has
Gibbon's notion of reading's relationship to thinking is the same as that of
Locke: "Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge..."
Political scientist, author of 'The Clash of Civilizations', mentor of Fukuyama
Huntington: "When people think seriously, they think abstractly; they conjure up ... concepts,
theories, models, paradigms. Without such intellectual constructs, there is ... only ... confusion."
Huntington: "A lot people tend to think I'm a dogmatic ideologue - but I'm not."
Amina Chaudary: "For a man who authored such a combative and controversial theory, Huntington
[is] remarkably quiet and soft-spoken."
Fareed Zakaria: "He was able to take policy debates and frame them in a much broader theoretical context."
Stanley Kurtz: "Philosophically [Fukuyama's] 'The End of History' and
[Huntington's] 'The Clash of Civilizations' could hardly be more different. ... For Fukuyama, the mainspring of history
is the ... yearning for equal recognition. [According to] Huntington ... humans [construct] identity [upon] hostility
[to other] religions and cultures."
Putnam: "[I] develop [through] self-criticism. ... I am always dissatisfied with something ...
I have previously written."
Putnam: "I think Freud tried, as Marx
tried, to make his discoveries a closed system of ideas. I don't believe in closed systems of ideas, but that
is not to say that one cannot learn from Marx and Freud."
Putnam: "Wittgenstein's arguments often have a pedagogical character."
Putnam: "Kierkegaard [is] more of a poet than a philosopher."
Putnam's self-criticism is the same as that of Arendt:
"The business of thinking undoes every morning..."
Nussbaum: "It is always possible to retreat into your own thoughts, to say, 'I
will live for my own thoughts.'"
Nussbaum: "I think the prime concern of philosophers is that you can never trust your
own plans because everything is so fragile. So how are you going to live?"
Nussbaum: "[Chomsky is] amongst those intellectuals who
think that one should not criticize one's friends, that solidarity is more important than correctness. ... It
Nussbaum: "[Butler's writing style] bullies the reader. ...
Since one cannot figure out what is going on, there must be something significant going on."
Founder of Whole Foods
Mackey: "There seems to be something in human nature that wants to restrict other people.
... Some people seem to not be happy unless they're telling other people what to do - that they know best. That's always
Mackey: "I don't like authoritarian managers."
Mackey: "I'm far less interested in
being right ... than I am in personally learning and growing."
New Yorker: "[As CEO] he doesn't bother with day-to-day
operations. ... When he's asked what it is he does, exactly, he
describes a kind of philosopher-king, who brings big ideas to bear."
Creator of Linux
Torvalds: "I'm really happy that I'm not a traditional manager. I don't have to manage logistics and
people. I can worry purely about the technical side."
Torvalds: "I have a really hard time making any judgment."
Torvalds: "Lots of people have ideas. It's actually finishing them [that matters]."
Torvalds: "[I appreciate] Richard Dawkins for being such an outspoken
critic of muddled thinking and anti-scientific thought."
Economist and author of 'Freakonomics'
Levitt: "I am one of the most closed-off people you'll ever find when it comes to emotional topics.
I have never learned, or tried to learn how to express emotions. I'm not proud of this, it just is the truth."
Levitt: "I know I love my wife [but she] wishes I weren't such an emotional invalid."
Economist and blogger
Mankiw: "In my view, it is best to consider all knowledge as tentative. The best scholars maintain an open-mindedness and
humility about even their own core beliefs."
Mankiw: "The one defining characteristic of a good professor is to be open to all viewpoints."
Mankiw: "[In a debate, Krugman's] first inclination is
to think that [his opponent] is either a liar or a fool. It's amazing to me that an academic would behave that way.
... No one has a monopoly on the truth."
Economist and author of 'The Strategy of Conflict'
Schelling: "[I] try to be neutral, removed, vicarious, impartial, judicious."
Schelling: "I have often been glad that I wasn't in charge."
Schelling: "Most people ... do not get drawn into ethical abstractions [like I do]."
Michael Kinsley: "Schelling [strips] away irrelevant detail and exposes situations
ranging from nuclear standoff ... to a family's decision about what to have for dinner as stark dramas of
[Asked about her childhood visits to her aunt's home:]
Ostrom: "That was a wonderful experience for me, the discussions they had. It was a serious ...
home, and the discussions were very serious."
Ostrom: "After designing multiple [grand] research projects ... it is time to try to
put thoughts ... together [in a book] even though I am still not fully satisfied with my own understanding."
Jacqui Bauer: "Ostrom is ... unforgiving [of] herself. But she's endlessly forgiving of others."
Essayist and tech startup investor at
Graham: "Rebellion is almost as stupid as obedience. In either case you let
yourself be defined by what they tell you to do."
Graham: "Do you have any opinions that you would be reluctant to express
in front of a group of your peers? If the answer is 'no', you might want to stop and think about that.
If everything you believe is something you're supposed to believe ... odds are you just think whatever you're told."
Graham: "Occasionally the stimulation of talking ... makes you think of new things, but in
general this is not going to generate ideas as well as writing does."
Physicist, responsible for the Sokal hoax
Sokal: "I'm merely a physicist with an amateur interest in the philosophy of science and perhaps
some modest skill at thinking clearly."
Sokal: "I'm not trying to be strategic. I'm not a politician. I'm a physicist, an academic, and,
if you want, an amateur philosopher."
Sokal: "I'm trying to say what I think is true as clearly and unemotionally as I can, and [then]
leave it to people to judge if my arguments are right or wrong."
Sokal: "What precisely do I mean by 'silliness'? ... Meaningless or absurd statements,
name-dropping, and the display of false erudition [as well as] sloppy thinking and poor philosophy."
Sokal identifies himself as INTP.
Psychologist and author of 'Please Understand Me II'
Keirsey: "It is to the Rational temperament that humanity owes its Directors, Inventors and Masterminds."
Keirsey: "If I do not want what you want, please try not to tell me that my want is wrong."
Keirsey: "If I ... fail to act, in the manner of your design for action, let me be."
Keirsey identifies himself as INTP.
Myers identifies Keirsey as INTP.
Psychoanalyst and author of 'Games People Play'
Berne: "Every once in a while I decide to get angry. It never pays off, and I can see really that what I've done is self-indulgence.
It's sort of fun to get angry and it makes you feel that you're right. It never does any good. ... There is no reason for an adult to get angry."
Berne: "[My system] is a system for understanding people's behavior ... and for predicting people's behavior."
Buddhist philosopher and author of 'The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way'
Nagarjuna: "The wise man's mind does not strive but simply reflects, free of desire."
Steve Hagen: "Nagarjuna's teachings have undergirded virtually all of the ...
developments [in Buddhist philosophy] ... since his day. ... It is the clarity that he brought ... that makes him stand out."
Kenneth Innada: "Nagarjuna is a giant among giants."
Christian Lindtner: "Nagarjuna's teaching is rather like Zeno's."
Dalai Lama: "[Einstein's theories]
give an empirically tested texture to Nagarjuna's theory of time."
Nagarjuna's notion of reflecting free of striving is the same as that of Darwin:
"A scientific man ought to have no wishes, no affections..."
Writer on Zen and author of 'An Introduction to Zen Buddhism'
Suzuki: "Not to be bound by rules, but to be creating one's own rules - this is the kind of
life [I'm] trying to have us live."
Suzuki: "We cannot put a stop to ... our philosophical inquiries any more than to our breathing."
Suzuki: "Oscar Wilde seems always posing or striving for an effect;
he may be a great artist, but there is something ... that turns me away from him."
Richard H. Jones: "Suzuki [always] wanted Buddhism to appear 'scientific.'"
C.G. Jung: "Suzuki's works ... are among the best contributions to
the knowledge of living Buddhism."
Philologist and author of 'Buddhist Logic'
Stcherbatsky: "The new born child and the animals are endowed with sensation and instinct ... but
they do not possess discursive inference."
Stcherbatsky: "[In my book I discuss] logic [and] discursive thought [and] leave
Zen master and author of 'Buddhism: Plain and Simple',
student of Dainin Katagiri
Hagen: "We [should have] an open and inquiring frame of mind."
Hagen: "We should always be prepared to take another look at what we believe and begin to doubt it."
Hagen: "We must doubt and doubt again - doubt to the very bottom, to the ground, and
then, doubt the ground itself."
Hagen: "Even in the simple statement 'I think,' Descartes had
already ... assumed the existence of a self. ... Descartes clearly did not doubt enough."
Dirac: "My life is mainly concerned with facts and not feelings."
Dirac: "If we are honest ... we must admit that religion is a jumble of
false assertions. ... It is quite
understandable why primitive people, who were so much more exposed to the overpowering forces of nature than we are
today, should have personified these forces in fear and trembling."
Graham Farmelo: "Heisenberg [was] asked
by Dirac, 'Why do you dance?' Heisenberg replied ... 'When there are nice girls it is a pleasure
to dance.' Dirac looked thoughtful. After about five minutes of silence, he said, 'Heisenberg, how do you know
beforehand that the girls are nice?'"
The Guardian: "When his wife exploded, 'What would you do if I left you?'
[he thought] for a while and then [answered] 'I'd say, 'Goodbye, dear.''"
Keirsey & son identify Dirac as INTP.
Goeppert-Mayer: "Winning the [Nobel] prize wasn't half as exciting as doing the work."
[Her graduate student:] "Her lectures were ... very technical and highly condensed. Her facility
with the methods of theoretical physics was overwhelming to most of the graduate students, in whom she inspired a
considerable amount of awe."
Judith Rich Harris
Psychologist and author of 'The Nurture Assumption'
Harris: "What I learned about developmental psychology and social psychology I learned on my own."
Harris: "During the years I was writing psychology textbooks, I believed the evidence [for nurture's effect on children] too.
But then I looked at it more closely and to my considerable surprise it fell apart in my hands. The evidence ... does not prove what it appears to prove."
Steven Pinker: "[Harris' contribution] was a devastating methodological critique that ... sent shockwaves throughout the academic community."
Harris identifies herself as INTP.
Habermas: "In discourse, the unforced force of the better argument prevails."
Habermas: "When I dined with Foucault I had expected to meet a charlatan,
but the man was in fact something entirely different - he was a philosopher!"
Marie-Louise von Franz
Psychologist and author, student of Jung
Von Franz: "My God, these Feeling types! ... Sensitive people are just tyrannical people - everybody else has to
adapt to them."
Von Franz: "An extravert's [introspection] is especially genuine and and especially pure and deep. Extraverts
are often so proud of this that they boast loudly about what great introverts they are. They try to make it a feather in their
cap - which is [again] quite extraverted."
Von Franz identifies herself as I-TP.
Journalist and human rights activist
Politkovskaya: "What am I guilty of? I have merely reported what I witnessed, nothing but the truth."
Politkovskaya: "I have never sought my present pariah status. ... I am no political infighter."
[On being sent to meet with hostage takers:]
Politkovskaya: "As they had chosen me, I couldn't refuse [but] I am a very poor negotiator. I had no idea
what to say [and] I'm not convinced that [sending me was] in any way effective."
Newspaper editor who solicited the Muhammad cartoons
Rose: "Doubt [is] the starting point of exploration and understanding of reality; doubt [is] the
occasion for curiosity and the formulation of critical questions."
Rose: "Censoring the cartoons is very discriminating against Muslims because [it is] in fact
saying, 'OK, we understand that you are so wild and uncivilized that we apply a different standard to you.' ...
If I were a Muslim, I'd be very offended."
Rose: "[In the early 1930s] the Nazis were repeatedly arrested on the grounds of hate speech
legislation. Hate speech laws proved a boon to Hitler."
Artificial intelligence theorist
Yudkowsky: "You should see the strange looks I get when people realize how much I care about rationality."
Yudkowsky: "Do not believe you do others a favor if you accept their arguments; the favor is to you."
Yudkowsky: "The people I know who seem to make unusual efforts at rationality, are unusually honest, or, failing that,
at least have unusually bad social skills."
Yudkowsky: "[I'm] very reflective, very analytic and [I have] mysterious trouble getting things done."
Unusually for INTPs, Yudkowsky also has
Kelley L. Ross
Ross: "My concern ... is to examine the extent to which arguments used by both sides of [a]
debate are poor. ... Bad reasoning ... always serves to demonize ... and to further radicalize and irrationalize."
Ross: "Although [associates of Ayn Rand like] David Kelley, Leonard
Peikoff, and others now try to develop her thought into a complete philosophical system, nothing can hide the
relative shallowness of her knowledge."
Ross: "Anyone who cares to can still familiarize themselves
with Jefferson's thinking and principles - as every
American should in a day when Constitutional government has effectively been destroyed."
Ross identifies himself as INT.
Steven E. Landsburg
Author of 'The Armchair Economist'
Landsburg: "In the absence of explicit contracts, people who lecture other people on their 'responsibilities' are almost always up to no good."
Annie Murphy Paul
Science writer, author of 'The Cult of Personality Testing'
Paul: "I want to learn from [people] who know more and understand more than me. ...
Learn from, not blindly follow."
Paul: "The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ... is used by 89 of the companies in the Fortune 100."
Paul: "While Jung was interested in complicating ... our world
and the people in it, Myers seemed determined to tidy it up, make it neat."
Paul: "[Type enthusiasts emblazon themselves] with self-congratulatory slogans [like] 'ENTJs
Are Life's Natural Leaders,' [or] 'INTPs Incubate Ideas.'"
- Abstract-minded systems analysts
- Amongst the types with the highest average IQ
- Strongly linked to the Schizotypal personality
- Somewhat linked to the Schizoid personality
- More common amongst men than amongst women
- Repress their Extroverted Feeling function, meaning that they may irrationally
submit to certain conventions in a suspension of their usual critical analysis
More About INTPs
While demographical data on Jungian type is unreliable, the following figures are commonly accepted as