2016 Primaries Morality Test

A recent study of U.S. voters uses a variant of Moral Foundations Theory to gauge the morality of each candidate's supporters. The results show that what one political group might intuitively experience as natural and fair, another group may consider utterly horrid and depraved. And while political scientists have long known how some of these differences apply to the traditional Left and Right, the 2016 primaries have distinguished themselves by including a number of unusual candidates, such as senators from the far right and left (Cruz/Sanders) and a political unknown (Trump). This test compares your political morals with the moral profiles of each candidate's supporters.

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Result: Your Moral Foundations Are:

 

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Explanation of Moral Foundations

Care (Empathy for the Weak): This foundation pertains to our mammalian need to care for our young and to form bonds of attachment to others. It underlies the virtues of kindness and nurturance and is tied to emotions such as protectiveness and compassion. Left-liberals typically score the highest on this dimension, conservatives the second-highest, and libertarians the lowest.

  • Among the initial field of candidates involved in the 2016 primaries, Sanders' supporters scored the highest on this foundation while the supporters of Rand Paul scored the lowest.
  • Among the remaining candidates, Sanders' supporters (still) score the highest, while the supporters of Ted Cruz now qualify as the lowest.

Proportionality (Just Rewards): This foundation relates to a person's tendency to see fairness as a person's right to keep what he earns and to get the "just deserts" of his labor. Where the left generally sees fairness as equality, the right is more inclined to see fairness as the proportional rewards of success (and, on the flip-side, allowing those who fail to actually fail).

  • Of the initial field of candidates, Sanders' supporters scored the lowest on proportionality, while Cruz' supporters score the highest (with Rubio's supporters not far behind).
  • To the surprise of some commentators, the supporters of Clinton and Trump have shown themselves to be fairly moderate on this foundation, with Clinton supporters being center-left and Trump supporters being center-right.

Heritage (Authority-Loyalty-Sanctity): This foundation pertains to our species' ancestral need to form bonds of social organization and live according to traditional values. It underlies the virtues of patriotism, bravery, and respect for tradition. It is tied to emotions such as sancity, piety, and awe. This foundation is usually stronger with social conservative voters than with anyone else.

  • Among the remaining candidates, the supporters of Carson and Cruz score the highest on this foundation (with Trump's supporters not far behind).
  • Among the initial field of candidates, Mike Huckabee's supporters scored significantly higher on this foundation than the supporters of all other candidates.

Liberty (Lifestyle Liberty): This foundation is related to the individual's need to be his own master and to avoid the dominant social mores imposed by the group. It underlies the virtues of independence and autonomy. It is tied to emotions such as self-sufficiency and defiance. This foundation is usually stronger with libertarian voters than with anyone else.

  • Among the remaining candidates, the supporters of Sanders and Cruz score the highest on this foundation (although no remaining candidate's supporters score very high).
  • Among the initial field of candidates, Rand Paul's supporters scored significantly higher on this foundation than the supporters of all other candidates.

Theory and Approach

Data and Findings

Data on the moral profiles of each candidate's supporters was extrapolated from the findings of a poll conducted by the CATO Institute and YouGov [Cato Institute National Survey on Policing and Criminal Justice, Cato Institute/YouGov, November 19-24, 2015].

For references on Moral Foundations Theory in general, see the list below, or read up on the results page of our regular Moral Foundations Test.

References

  • Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., Ditto, P.: Mapping the Moral Domain Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101(2), 2011
  • Graham, J., Haidt, J., Nosek, Brian A.: Liberals and Conservatives Rely on Different Sets of Moral Foundations Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96, 2009
  • Iyer R., Koleva S., Graham J., Ditto P., Haidt J.: Understanding Libertarian Morality PLoS ONE 7(8), 2012
  • Kim, K.R., Kang, J., Yun, S.: Moral Intuitions and Political Orientation Psychological Reports 111(1), 2012
  • Nilsson, A., Erlandsson, A.: The Moral Foundations Taxonomy Personality and Individual Differences 76, 2015
  • Clifford , S., Iyengar, V., Cabeza, R., Sinnott-Armstrong, W.: Moral Foundations Vignettes Behavior Research Methods, 2015
  • Gross, N., Medvetz, T. Russell, R.: The Contemporary American Conservative Movement Annual Review of Sociology 37, 2011

CelebrityTypes Moral Foundations 2016 Primaries Test is the property of CelebrityTypes International and is not to be confused with similar Moral Foundations tests operating within the same framework, such as the Moral Foundations Statement Quiz, as found on YourMorals.org. For survey data and prior discussion on these matters, we are indebted to the social scientists Emily Ekins and Jonathan Haidt. We are also indebted to the Cato Institute National Survey on Policing and Criminal Justice, Cato Institute/YouGov, November 19-24, 2015 for the data used in constructing the moral profiles of each candidate's supporters.

The Moral Foundations framework was developed by a conglomerate of researchers who study morality, ethics, psychology, and politics in an effort to understand human behavior better and individual differences more in depth. As a social science framework, the Moral Foundations allow for the testing of a wide variety of hypotheses about individual differences and human nature.

This test has been made with the aid of professional political and social science analysts, as well as respondents from all sides of the political spectrum. Even so, please keep in mind that tests are merely indicators - a first peek at the system to get you started.

2016 Primaries Morality Tests, whether they are professional or "official" tests used in academic research, or free online tests like this one, are indicators to help give you a cue as to your moral and ethical standpoint, based on the Moral Foundations of Care, Fairness, Loyalty, Authority, Purity, and Liberty. In matching your morality with contemporary political segments, as found in Western democracies, this test draws upon state-of-the-art, peer-reviewed social science publications for its data. Even so, no test ever devised can designate your Moral Foundations or political allegiances with complete accuracy or reliability and no 2016 Primaries Morality Test can replace familiarizing yourself with the Moral Foundations framework or the politics of your own country in depth.

The authors of this free online 2016 Primaries Morality Test are certified in the use of multiple different personality and aptitude tests and have worked professionally with psychology, political psychology, politics, and personality testing. Prior to using our free online test, please note that the results are provided "as-is", for free, and should not be construed as providing professional or certified advice of any kind. For more on our online Moral Foundations Test, please consult our Terms of Service.

Why Use This Test?

1. Free. This free online 2016 Primaries Morality Test is delivered to you free of charge and will allow you to obtain your scores on a variant of the six major Moral Foundations, as devised by leading social scientists.

2. Agenda-free. While social science work in politics, and regarding the validity of moral instincts, is often distorted in service of interested parties, this test merely reports the moral profiles of each candidate's supporters and aims to be agenda-free.

3. Tested in several countries. The Moral Foundations Framework which underpins this test has been used with success in several different regions, including the USA, Europe, and East Asia.

4. Made with the aid of professionals. The present test has been made with the input of researchers who work professionally with political science and political analysis.

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